Anatomy (Normal Heart Anatomy)
The heart is the most important muscular organ in the body. It works around the clock pumping blood to various parts of the body through the network of blood vessels. The normal adult heart weighs between 200- 425 grams (7 to 15 ounces) and is about the size of your fist.
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Heart Disease and Abnormal Heart Rhythm (Arrhythmia)
Arrhythmia is a disorder characterized by abnormal heart beat such as beating too fast, too slow or irregularly. During arrhythmia, as the heart is not able to pump enough blood to the body, it can lead to organ dysfunction or damage. Most arrhythmias are harmless; however, some are more serious and life-threatening.
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The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. When the coronary arteries become narrow or blocked, blood flow to the heart is reduced. This decrease in blood flow to the heart deprives the heart muscle of oxygen.
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Angina Pectoris ("Angina") is a recurring pain or discomfort in the chest that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood.
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Heart failure is a condition where the heart fails to pump blood to maintain the metabolic needs of the body. As a result, the kidneys start retaining fluid in the body. Congestion occurs when the retained fluid builds up in the organs of the body and the condition is described as congestive heart failure.
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Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary artery disease (CAD) usually occurs when cholesterol and plaque accumulate inside the coronary arteries (blood vessels supplying oxygen-rich blood to heart muscles), and block the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The plaque can sometimes break off and form a blood clot that can completely block the vessels, leading to permanent heart damage.
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Valvular Heart Disease
The heart is an organ that pumps oxygen-rich blood to every cell in the body. The human heart is divided into four chambers, two superior atria and two inferior ventricles that are connected by four valves (mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary). The heart valves permit the unidirectional flow of blood between the chambers of the heart.
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Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack is one of the leading causes of death in both men and women. MI occurs when the coronary arteries (blood vessels that supply blood to the heart) get narrowed or blocked. This blockage deprives the heart of blood and oxygen causing damage to the heart muscle.
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Atrial Fibrillation is a very common heart condition caused by a malfunction of the heart's electrical conduction system. This malfunction causes the upper chambers of the heart, the atria, to contract in an uncoordinated manner resulting in an irregular, and often fast, heartbeat.
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Cardiac Myxoma and Tumours
Sudden Cardiac Arrest
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
Blood exerts a certain amount of pressure on the walls of the arteries as it flows through the body. This is determined by the amount of blood pumped by your heart and the resistance to the flow exhibited by your vessels.
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Congenital Heart Defects
Aortic Disease and Marfan’s Syndrome